This month, we are thrilled to announce that we’ve released our first official teaching resources!
Online Risk and Digital Citizenship: Learning About Risk With High School League of Legends Clubs is an overview and endorsement of the clubs, focusing on the great strides Riot Games has made teaching students about online etiquette and sportsmanship.Teaching A Team-Oriented Mindset & Resilience is a lesson plan for teachers leading clubs. It includes teaching objectives, a series of student activities, and discussion questions to bring up before, during, and after a match.You can also download both resources on the High School League of Legends site.
We had a great time collaborating with the League of Legends team in Oceania on these resources. Teachers, we hope you find them invaluable in your classes, as you lead students along this journey. Students, we hope you learn about sportsmanship and digital citizenship — and have a lot of fun along the way.
Last year, we had the great privilege to meet and interview Ivan Davies, a Rioter who spearheaded the High School League of Legends Club, a major initiative in Oceania.
At Two Hat, we believe that everyone has the right to share online without fear of harassment or abuse. Every day, we help gaming and social platforms foster healthy and inclusive online spaces. And just like Riot Games, we believe that encouraging the ideals of online etiquette and the Summoner’s Code are just as crucial in those online spaces as they are on the playing field.
Ivan and his team are doing critical work in Oceania. The High School League of Legends Clubsinitiative teaches students, teachers, and parents the core values of digital citizenship, fair play, and the six essential tenets of sportsmanship. All of these topics are dear to our hearts (and core to our mission) at Two Hat. Deciding to partner with the High School LoL Clubs initiative was a no-brainer for us.
And on that note… we are thrilled to announce that, in 2018, we will be collaborating with the High School League of Legends Clubs team to create brand-new resources for teachers, parents, and students, all centered around the concept of online risk. Not only that, we are also partnering with the team to produce several blogs about the initiative, with a special focus on the very human stories that have made the project a success from the very beginning.
The industry is poised for a major change over the next year. We believe that in 2018 the values of digital citizenship, fair play, and sportsmanship will become the standard across all platforms.
We’re proud to work alongside a visionary company like Riot Games to help usher in a new age of sportsmanship and mutual respect in gaming. And what better place to start than with high school students — the digital citizens of the future.
“We are delighted to have partnered with Two Hat who, like us, believe in a world free of online bullying and harassment. By working together, we hope to cultivate friendly gaming communities that foster positive and productive interactions.”
Ivan Davies, Social Play and Community at Riot Games
“Riot Games is leading the way with High School League of Legends Clubs, offering students and teachers an invaluable opportunity to explore and practice online citizenship in a unique way. Dedicated to producing long-lasting results, Riot Games is shaping new online citizens who are learning how to use digital platforms with purpose and awareness.”
Carlos Figueiredo, Director of Community Trust & Safety at Two Hat Security
Ivan Davies of Riot Games has one of the coolest job descriptions ever.
“My job is to try and make a difference to the League of Legends player and wider community,” he says. “I work in a publishing office in Oceania, where I’m not told what to do by my Manager. I’m simply entrusted to make a difference; it’s then up to the local team to decide what direction we should take.”
For Ivan and his team, making a difference means tackling one of the biggest issues facing the gaming world today: How do you educate young players about good online behavior?
Following the Summoner’s Code
Riot Games has long been a proponent of sportsmanship. With 100 million monthly players across the globe, League of Legends is the biggest game in the industry. Because of its intensely competitive nature, it has become known for its sometimes heated atmosphere. Players are expected to abide by the Summoner’s Code, a comprehensive guide to being a good team player.
Despite encouraging the Summoner’s Code and being at the forefront of player behavior studies, Ivan notes that “At times, it’s felt like we could do more. Video games are a fundamental reflection of humanity: how we learn, how we interact, how we come to understand our world. We all “play” throughout our lives in some capacity or another. Video games just provide a particular sandbox… the reason they work so well is because of these parallels. The social and competitive nature of League of Legends taps into human fundamentals.”
Last year, Ivan and his team started to wonder what they could do outside of the in-game experience to positively shape player behavior. They realized that it’s not just the gaming industry that isn’t doing enough — it’s also the education sector. Students are online every day, at school and at home, and yet schools are doing very little to teach students about acceptable online behavior.
“Some schools don’t do enough to set students up for an online future. I’ve heard a number of schools hire an external speaker to talk to their students about cyberbullying. This talk may happen once a year purely to tick a box; a curriculum standard has been met, and online etiquette is not considered a priority for another year.” Ivan says.
“Teachers and the education sector have been slow to respond to this online world and setting students up for a future of online activity. The education sector is meant to set you up for life and at the moment not enough is being done to ensure online educational needs are being met.”
It’s all about sportsmanship
In 2016 Ivan and his team created League of Legends High School Clubs — an initiative that is now spreading across Australia and New Zealand. Like other after-school clubs (think AV, drama, or Model UN), League of Legends clubs are led by a dedicated teacher. Under the teacher’s supervision, students play League of Legends in groups at school and even participate in championship tournaments against other schools.
To help students understand and follow the Summoner’s Code, Ivan and his team have outlined six aspects of sportsmanship, which teachers and students discuss before, during, and after a game.
“A League of Legends High School Club is intended to promote authentic, relatable learning experiences,” Ivan says. “It provides an opportunity for students to explore and model the key values that exist in schools and in the curriculum. We’ve chosen to focus on sportsmanship and have provided a code of acceptable behavior for players to abide by in their pursuit of fair play.”
Helping teachers and students
Ivan and his team haven’t just worked diligently to promote the clubs — they’ve also built a remarkable set of teaching materials structured around the “Assessment for Learning” framework. Popular in the UK and Australia, “Assessment for Learning” emphasizes ongoing review and adjustment based on each student’s unique needs. Teaching materials include everything from discussion cards and self-evaluation sheets to essential information for school IT departments.
“We need to meet students where they are, and the more the education sector supports what we’re doing, the more likely we can collectively make a difference.”
This connection to the tenets of education is no accident — it’s a particularly brilliant choice on the part of Ivan and his team. As he says, “The resources align with the national curriculum and Positive Behavior for Learning, an initiative in Oceania which many schools are looking to roll out. League of Legends High School Clubs is one way of implementing these initiatives.”
Online changes, offline improvements
The exciting news is that the clubs have a real effect on kids — and not just on their online behavior.
“A year ago, we had this hypothesis that League of Legends could teach right from wrong,” he says. “A club led by a dedicated Teacher can definitely provide those opportunities. Not only have Teachers seen students adopting sportsmanlike characteristics, which has led to outcomes like effective communication and leadership, but some Teachers are now starting to see this transfer out of the League of Legends High School clubs and into the wider school curriculum.”
In addition to the existing 30 schools participating in clubs, Ivan did a professional development session last year to 26 teachers in Perth. As of July 2017, he has spoken to 130 different teachers across Oceania, and he’s eager to meet with more.
“A League of Legends High School Club is intended to promote authentic, relatable learning experiences.”
In the future, he hopes to expand the program throughout Oceania, adding more schools, teachers, and students to the already-growing list of participants. Not only that, he hopes that the education departments in Australia and New Zealand will soon recognize the benefits of the program — and potentially change the way they teach online etiquette to kids.
Why early digital education is crucial
“This is the place to teach online behavior,” Ivan says of high school. “I’ve always seen the education sector as a critical evolution point for young people. As teens begin to explore and experiment with the online world, we must think about how we can best support them on this journey. Let’s not shift the responsibility onto someone else or hope that they will learn online skills themselves.”
He hopes that the success of the project will send a strong signal to the world — that it’s time we tackle the problem of toxic online behavior. “This whole notion of ‘We’re going to wrap kids up in cotton wool. We’re going to remove them from the internet,’ is not an effective solution,” he cautions.
“Our children and our students look to us to set expectations of what good behavior looks like.”
“What we have to do is meet them on their chosen journey and be prepared to walk alongside them, side by side, step by step. As parents and teachers, we need to allow students to inevitably trip up or fall, and as they do we should be prepared and able to provide support and guidance. We should help them to make sense of what happened and why, and then encourage them to continue walking until they are skilled enough to walk on their own.”
It’s clear that the time for early education is now. The Pew Research Center’s latest study reports that 40% of Americans have experienced online harassment, while 62% consider harassment a major problem. As Ivan points out, these numbers highlight just how serious the problem is. The clubs are only the first step.
The future is now
“We, as adults, educators, and teachers have to be prepared to act,” Ivan says. “Our children and our students look to us to set expectations of what good behavior looks like, and if we can’t find the courage, time or dedication to step up and make a difference — what hope does the next generation have? Now is the time for change. The future we hope for won’t exist unless we do something about the now.”
“This is the place to teach online behavior,” Ivan says of high school. “I’ve always seen the education sector as a critical evolution point for young people.”
He’s hopeful for the future. “This is a hot topic of conversation. I spoke to three teachers yesterday, and I’m speaking to two more today.”
He adds, “I believe in a broad and balanced education system which embraces diversity and new opportunities that enhance understanding and student learning. We spend time on the things we care about, and the same goes for today’s students, many of whom are already invested in a digital world.
We need to meet students where they are, and the more the education sector supports what we’re doing, the more likely we can collectively make a difference.”
Find out more about sportsmanship and League of Legends High School Clubs on their site. Don’t forget to download their fantastic Teacher’s Resources here.
Interested in starting a club at your school? Find out how.
This year, it seems like every second article you read is about online behavior. From Mark Zuckerberg’s manifesto to Twitter’s ongoing attempts to address abuse, toxicity is a hot topic.
However, forward-thinking companies like Riot Games have been (not so quietly) researching online toxicity for years now. And one of their biggest takeaways is that when it comes to online behavior, as a society we’re still in the discovery stages… and we have a long way to go.
Luckily, we have experts like Riot’s brilliant Senior Technical Designer Kimberly Voll to help guide us on the journey.
A long-time gamer with a background in computer science, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science (told you she was brilliant), Kim believes passionately in the power of player experience on game design. She also happens to be an expert in player behavior and online communication.
We sat down with her recently to discuss the current state of online discourse, the psychology of player behavior, and how game designers can promote sportsmanship in their games.
You say you want a revolution
Two Hat: As an industry, it seems like 2017 is the year we start to talk about online behavior, honestly and with an eye to finding solutions.
Kim: We’re on the cusp of a pretty significant shift in how we think of online digital play. Step by step, it’s starting to mature into a real industry. We’re at that awkward teenage phase where all hell keeps breaking loose sometimes. The internet is the fastest spreading technology that humans beings have ever faced. You blink, it went global, and now suddenly everybody’s online.
“How do you teach your kids to behave online when we don’t even know how to behave online?”
It hasn’t been culturally appropriated yet. It’s here, we like it, and we’re using it. There’s not enough of us stepping back and looking at it critically.
TW: Is it something about the nature of the internet that makes us behave this way?
Kim: The way we normally handle etiquette is with actual social settings. When you go to a kid’s club, you use kid-friendly language. When you got to a nightclub, you use nightclub-friendly language. We solve for that pretty easily. Most of us are good at reading a room, knowing how to read our peers, knowing what’s okay to say at work, versus elsewhere, knowing what it’s okay to say when you’re on the player behavior team and you’re exposed to all manner of language [laughs]. We’ve been doing this since we moved out of caves.
But we don’t have that on the internet. You can’t reliably look around and trust that space. And you find with kids that they go into all of the spaces trusting. Or they do what kids do and push the limits. Both are not great. We want kids to push the limits so they can learn the limits, but we don’t want them to build up these terrible habits that propagate these ways of talking.
On the internet, you don’t get the gesticulations, you don’t the presence that is being in the room with another person. There are certain channels that right now are completely cut off. So right now we’re hyper-focusing on other channels — for a long time that’s just been chat. These limitations mean that you end up trying to amplify and bring out your humanity in different ways.
The nature of things
TH:As a gamer and a cognitive scientist, what is your take on toxic player behavior?
Kim: I think the first step is understanding the nature of the problem.
There are different ways to look at toxicity and unsportsmanship. We can’t paint it all with the same brush.
“Are there people who just want to watch the world burn? They’re out there, but in our experience, they’re really, really rare.”
Not everyone else is being a saint, but not everyone is the same.
MOBAs [Multiplayer Battle Arena Games] are frustrating because they’re super intense. If something goes wrong you’re particularly susceptible to losing your temper. That creates a tinderbox that gives rise to other things. Couple that with bad habits and socio-norms that have developed on the internet, and have been honed somewhat for a gaming audience, and they’re just that — they’re norms. Doesn’t make them necessarily right or wrong, and it doesn’t mean that players like them. We find that players don’t like them, overwhelmingly. And they’re becoming incredibly vocal, saying “We don’t want this.”
But there’s a second vocal group that’s saying “Suck it up. It’s the internet, it’s the way we talk.” And the balance is somewhere in the middle.
It’s always a balancing act
TH: How can game designers decide what tactic they should use to promote better behavior in their game?
Kim: There is obviously a line, but it shifts a bit. Where that line falls will depend largely on your community, your content. It’s the same way the line shifts dramatically when you’re out with friends drinking, versus at home with the family playing card games with your kid cousins.
There has to be flexibility. The first thing to do is understand your community, and try to gain a broader perspective of the motivation and underlying things that drive these behaviors. And also understand that there is no “one size fits all” approach. As a producer of interactive content, you need to figure out where your comfort level is. Then draw that line, and stick by that line. It’s your game; you can set those standards.
There is understanding the community, understanding it within the context of your game, and then there’s the work that Community Sift does, which is shield. I think that shielding remains ever-important. But there has to be balance. The shield is the band-aid, but if we only ever do that, we’re missing an opportunity to learn from what that bandaid is blocking.
There’s a nice tension there where we can begin to explore things.
You don’t need to fundamentally alter your core experience. But if you have that awareness it forces you to ask questions like, “Do I want to have chat in this part of the game or do I want to have voice chat immediately after a match when tempers are the most heated?
Change is good
TH: Do you have an example of a time when Riot made a change to gameplay based on player behavior?
Kim: Recently we added the ability to select your role before you go into the queue, with some exceptions. Before it used to be that you would pop into chat and the war would start, because there are some roles that people tend to like more.
Before, it used to be that you would pop into chat and then the war would start to ensure you got the role you wanted. Whoever could type “mid” fastest ideally got the role, assuming people were even willing to accept precedence, which sometimes they weren’t. And if you lagged for any reason, you could miss your chance at your role.
We realized we were starting the game out on the wrong foot with these mini-wars. What was supposed to be a cooperative team game — one team vs another — now included this intra-team fighting because we started off with that kind of atmosphere.
Being able to choose your role gives players agency in a meaningful way, and removes these pre-game arguments. It’s not perfect, but it’s made the game significantly better.
Trigger warnings, road rage, and language norms… oh my!
TH: What kinds of things trigger bad behavior?
Kim: There is a mix of things that trigger toxicity and unsportsmanlike behavior. Obviously, frustration is one. But let’s break that down: What do you want to do when you’re frustrated? You want to kick and scream. You want the world to know. And if somebody is there with you, you need them to know, even if they had nothing to do with it.
“Put yourself in a situation where you’re locked behind a keyboard, your frustration is bubbling over, and you’re quite likely alone in a room playing a game. How do you yell at the person on the other side of the screen? Well, you can use all caps, but that’s not very satisfying. So how do you get more volume into your words? You keep amping up what you’re saying. And what’s the top of that chain? Hate speech.”
It’s very similar to road rage. I remember my mom told me a story about some dude who was upset that she didn’t run a yellow light, He actually got out of the car and started pounding on her hood. And I bet he went home afterward, pulled into his driveway, greeted his kid, and was a normal person for the rest of the day.
You’re not an actual monster; you’re in a particular set of circumstances, in that situation, that have funneled you through the keyboard into typing things you might not otherwise type. So that’s one big bucket.
In the 70s and 80s, we used to say things like “You’re such a retard.” Now, we’re like “I can’t believe we used to say that.” There are certain phrases that were normal at the time. We had zero ill intent — it was just a way of saying “You’re a goofball.” That sort of normalcy that you get with language, no matter how severe, when you’re exposed to it regularly, becomes ingrained in you, and you carry that through your life and don’t even realize it.
We’ve sent people their chat logs, and I truly believe that they when they look at them, they have no idea what the problem is. Other people see the problem, but they just think, “Suck it up.” But there is a third group of people who look at it and they think “This is the way everybody talks, I don’t understand.” They’re caught in a weird spot where they don’t know how to move forward. And that can trigger defensiveness.
The thought process is roughly “So, you’re asking me to change, but I don’t quite get it, I don’t want to change, because I’m me, and I like talking this way, and when I say things like this, my friends acknowledge me and laugh, and that’s my bonding mechanism so you can’t take that away from me.”
Typically, no one thinks all those things consciously. But they do get angry, and now we’ve lost all productive discourse.
There is a full spectrum here. It’s a big tapestry of really interesting things that are going on when people behave this way on the internet. All of that feeds into the question how do we shield it?
“Shielding is great, but can we also give feedback in a way that increases the likelihood that people who are getting the feedback are receptive to it?”
Can we draw a line between what’s so bad that the cost of the pain caused to people is far more than the time it would take to try to help this person?
Can we actually prevent them from getting into this state by understanding what’s triggering it, whether it’s the game, human nature, or current socio-norms?
Let’s talk about toxicity
TH: What can we do to ensure that these conversations continue?
Kim: I think we need to steer away from accusations. We’re all in this together; we’re all on the internet. There’s a certain level of individual responsibility in how we conduct ourselves online.
I’ve had these conversations when people are like “Yes, let’s clean up the internet, let’s do everything we have to do to make this happen.” And the flipside is people who say “Just suck it up. People are far too sensitive.”
And what I often find is that the first group are just naturally well-behaved online, while the second group is more likely to lose it. So when we have these conversations, what we don’t realize is that our perspective can unconsciously become an affront on who they are.
If we don’t take that into account in the conversation, then we end up inadvertently pointing fingers again.
We have to get to a point where can we talk about it, without getting defensive.
Redefining our approach to player behavior
TH: Your empathetic approach is refreshing. Many of us have gotten into the habit of assuming the worst of people and being unwilling to see the other person’s perspective. And of course, that isn’t productive.
Kim: Despite our tendency to make flippant, sweeping comments — most people are not jerks. They’re a product of their own situation. And those journeys that have got each of us to where we are today are different, and they’re often dramatically different. And when we put people on the internet, we’ve got a mix of folks for whom the only thing connecting them is this game, and they come into the game with a bunch of bad experiences, or just generally feeling like “Everyone else is going to let me down.”
Then somebody makes an innocent mistake, or not even a mistake — maybe they took a direction you didn’t expect — and that just reinforces their worldview. “See, everyone is an idiot!”
When expectations aren’t met it leads to a lot of frustration, and players head into games with a lot of expectations.
I believe very viscerally that we have to listen before we try to aggressively push things out. But also we have to realize that the folks we are trying to understand may not be ready to talk. So we may have to go to them. And that applies to a lot of human tragedy, from racism to sexism.
We come in wagging our fingers, and our natural human defense is “Walls up, defenses up — this is the only way I will solve the cognitive dissonance that is you telling me that I should change who I am. Because I am who I am, and I don’t want to change who I am. Because who else would I be?” And that’s scary.
TH: It sounds like we need to take a step back and show a bit of grace. Like we said before, the conversation is finally starting to happen, so let’s give people time to adjust.
Kim: Think about the average company. You’re trying to make a buck to put food on the table and maybe make a few great games. That doesn’t leave a lot of room to do a lot of extra stuff. You may want to, but you may also think, “I have no idea what to do, and I tried a few things and it didn’t work, so what now? What do I do, stop making games?”
“At Riot, we’re lucky to have had the success that we’ve had to make it possible fund these efforts, and that’s why we want to share. Let’s talk, let’s share. I never thought I’d have this job in my life. We’re very lucky to fund our team and try to make a difference in a little corner of the internet.”
It’s harder for games that have been out for a long time. Because it’s harder to shift normative behavior and break those habits. But we’re trying.
Want to know more about Kim? Follow @zanytomatoon Twitter