Meet the Mayor in a Town of 20 Million Teens

Launched in 2016, Yubo is a social network of more than 20 million users from around the world. Yubo lets users meet new people and connect through live video streaming and chat. Developed and operated by Paris-based Twelve App SAS, the Yubo app is available for free on the App Store and Google Play.

Two Hat’s Community Sift platform powers content moderation for Yubo’s Live Titles, Comments, and Usernames, all in multiple languages. Use cases include detection and moderation of bullying, sexting, drugs/alcohol, fraud, racism, and grooming. Recently, Yubo’s COO, Marc-Antoine Durand, sat down with Two Hat to share his thoughts on building and operating a safe social platform for teens, and where future evolutions in content moderation may lead.


Two Hat: Talk about what it’s like to operate a community of young people from around the globe sharing 7 million comments every day on your platform.

Marc-Antoine Durand: It’s like running a city. You need to have rules and boundaries, and importantly you need to educate users about them, and you have to undertake prevention to keep things from getting out of hand in the first place. You’ll deal with all the bad things that exist elsewhere in society – drug dealing, fraud, prostitution, bullying and harassment, thoughts or attempts at suicide – and you will need a framework of policies and law enforcement to keep your city safe. It’s critical that these services are delivered in real-time.

Marc-Antoine Durand, COO of Yubo

The future safety of the digital world rests upon how willing we are to use behavioral insights to stop the bad from spoiling the good. If a Yubo moderator sees something happening that violates community guidelines or could put someone at risk, they send a warning message to the user. The message might say that their Live feed will be shut down in one minute, or it might warn the user they will be suspended from the app if they don’t change their behavior. We’re the only social video app to do this, and we do it because the best way for young people to learn is in the moment, through real-life experience.

Yubo’s role is to always find a balance between ensuring self-expression and freedom of speech while preventing harm. Teenagers are very keen to talk about themselves, are interested in others and want to share the issues that are on their minds such as relationships and sexuality. This is a normal part of growing up and development at this point in teenagers’ lives. But this needs to be done within a context that is healthy and free from pressure and coercion, for example, sharing intimate images. Finding a limit or balance between freedom and protection in each case is important to make sure the app is appealing to young people and offers them the space for expression but keeps them as safe as possible.

TH: When Yubo first launched in 2016, content moderation was still quite a nascent industry. What were your solutions options at the time and how was your initial learning curve as a platform operator?

MD: There weren’t many options available then. You could hire a local team of moderators to check comments and label them, but that’s expensive and hard to scale. There was no way our little team of four could manage all that and be proficient in Danish, English, French, Norwegian, Spanish and Swedish all at the same time. So multi-language support was a must to have.

We created our own algorithms to detect images that broke Yubo’s community guidelines and acceptable use policies, but content moderation is a very special technical competency and it’s a never-ending job and there were only four of us and we simply couldn’t do all that was required to do this well. As a result, early on, we were targeted by the press as a ‘bad app.’ To win the trust back and establish the app as safe and appropriate for young people we had to start over. Our strategy was to show that we were working hard and fast to improve and we set out to establish that a small company with the right safety strategy and tools can be just as good, or better, at content moderation as any large company.

I applaud Yubo for extensively reworking its safety features to make its platform safer for teens. Altering its age restrictions, improving its real identity policy, setting clear policies around inappropriate content and cyberbullying, and giving users the ability to turn location data off demonstrates that Yubo is taking user safety seriously.

Julie Inman Grant, Australian e-safety Commissioner

TH: What are some of the key content moderation issues on your platform and how do you engage users as part of the solution?

MD: One of the issues every service has is user fake profiles. These are particularly a problem in issues like grooming, or bullying. To address this, we have created a partnership with a company called Yoti that allows users to certify their identity. So, when you’re talking to somebody, you can see that they have a badge signifying that their identity has been certified, indicating they are ‘who they say they are.’ It’s a voluntary process for users to participate in this, but if we think a particular profile may be suspicious or unsafe, we can force the user to certify their identity, or they will be removed from the platform.

Real time intervention by Yubo moderators

The other issues we deal with are often related to the user’s live stream title, which is customizable, and the comments in real-time chats. Very soon after launching, we saw that users were creating sexualized and ‘attention-seeking’ live stream titles not just for fun, but as a strategy to attract more views, for example, with a title such as: “I’m going to flash at 50 views.” People are very good at finding ways to bypass the system by creating variations of words. We realized immediately that we needed a technology to detect and respond to that subversion.

As to engaging users as part of our content moderation, it’s very important to give users who wish to participate in some way an opportunity to help and something they can do to help with the app. Users want and value this. When our users report bad or concerning behavior in the app, they give us a very precise reason and good context. They do this because they are very passionate about the service and want to keep it safe. Our job is to gather this feedback and data so that we may learn from it, but also to take action on what users tell us, and to reward those who help us. That’s how this big city functions.

TH: Yubo was referenced as part of the United Kingdom’s Online Harms white paper and consultation — What’s your take on pending duty of care legislation in the UK and elsewhere, and are you concerned that a more restrictive regulatory environment may stifle technical innovation?

MD: I think regulation is good as long as it’s thoughtful and agile to adjust to a constantly changing technical environment and not simply a way to blame apps and social platforms for all the bad things happening in society because that does not achieve anything. Perhaps most concerning is setting standards that only the Big Tech companies with thousands of moderators and technical infra-structure staff can realistically achieve, and this prohibits and restricts smaller start-ups being innovative and able to participate in the ecosystem. Certainly, people spend a lot of time on these platforms and they should not be unregulated, but the government can’t just set rules, they need to help companies get better at providing safer products and services.

It’s an ecosystem and everyone needs to work together to improve it and keep it as safe as possible, and this includes the wider public and users themselves. So much more is needed in the White Paper about media literacy and managing off-line problems escalating and being amplified online. Bullying and discrimination, for example, exist in society and strategies are needed in schools, families, and communities to tackle these issues – just focusing online will not deter or prevent these issues.

In France, by comparison to the UK, we’re very far away from this ideal ecosystem. We’ve started to work on moderation, but really the French government just does whatever Facebook says. No matter where you are, the more regulations you have, the more difficult it will be to start and grow a company, so barriers to innovation and market entry will be higher. That’s just where things are today.

It’s in our DNA to take safety features as far as we can to protect our users.

— Marc-Antoine Durand, COO of Yubo

TH: How do you see Yubo’s approach to content moderation evolving in the future?

MD: We want to build a reputation system for users, the idea being to do what I call pre-moderation, or detecting unsafe users by their history. For that, we need to gather as much data as we can from our user’s live streams, titles, and comments. The plan is to create a method where users are rewarded for good behavior. That’s the future of the app, to reward the good stuff and, for the very small minority who are doing bad stuff, like inappropriate comments or pictures or titles, we’ll engage them and let them know it’s not ok and that they need to change their behavior if they want to stay. So, user reputation as a baseline for moderation. That’s where we are going.


We’re currently offering no-cost, no-obligation Community Consultations for social networks that want an expert consultation on their community moderation practices.

Our Director of Community Trust & Safety will examine your community, locate areas of potential risk, and provide you with a personalized community analysis, including recommended best practices and tips to maximize user engagement.

Sign up using the form below to request your community consultation.

When Social Networks Put Online Safety First, We All Win

 “If we’re looking at the current zeitgeist, you have a consumer base that’s looking toward tech companies to showcase moral guidance.” — David Ryan Polgar

Users are fed up.

Tired of rampant harassment and abuse in social media, consumers have finally begun to demand safer online spaces that encourage and reward good digital citizenship. And they’re starting to hold social networks accountable for dangerous behavior on their platforms.

But what exactly are online safety and digital citizenship? And what can social networks do to make safety an industry standard?

We spoke with Trust & Safety experts David Ryan Polgar of Friendbase and Carlos Figueiredo of Two Hat Security to get their thoughts on changing attitudes in the industry — and the one thing that social networks can do today to inspire civility and respect on their platform.

Click play to listen:

Highlights & key quotes

On safety:

“Online safety… is very similar to driving. There are lots of dangers to getting on the road, but that doesn’t mean we don’t get on the road.” — David Ryan Polgar

“It’s important for us to consider not just safety, but what is a healthy online experience? It’s okay to have a certain amount of risk that will vary from community to community… We don’t want to focus just on the dangers and risks.” — Carlos Figueiredo

On “safety by design”:

“There are lots of examples where a company scaled up quickly and aggressively got millions of users, but they didn’t necessarily have the features in place to have a safe experience. We want safety, but we also want vibrancy, that happy mix  — what I call a ‘Goldilocks zone.’ And the danger is, once you get labeled as a place that allows for toxic behavior, it’s very difficult to alter that perception, even when you change some of the tools.” — DRP

“Whenever possible, safety needs to be a product and design consideration from the very beginning… by having this proactive approach, you can prevent a lot of issues.” — CF

On setting a positive tone in your product:

I think the big thing is intuitive tools. That’s always been a big complaint for a lot of individuals. Once you have a problem online, is it intuitive to report it? And then, potentially more importantly, what’s the protocol after that’s been reported?” — DRP

“One thing that I would definitely recommend that people start doing is, if they don’t have an individual or a team in charge of community well-being or community safety, have somebody where at least a big chunk of time is dedicated to this – and a team, even better. Put that as a key priority of your product. Employ really solid people who understand your community.” — CF

Online safety & digital citizenship resources

David is a board member for the non-profit #ICANHELP, which holds the first annual #Digital4Good event next month at Twitter HQ. This highly-anticipated event brings together students, representatives from the tech industry, and teachers to discuss and celebrate positive tech and media use.

Learn more on the #ICANHELP website, and follow @icanhelp and #Digital4Good on Twitter. 

Don’t miss the live-streamed event on Monday, September 18th. Carlos will be moderating a panel with three very special guests (more info to come!). They’ll be talking about player behavior in online games.

Two Hat Security is hosting an exclusive webinar about community building on Wednesday, September 13th. In The Six Essential Pillars of Healthy Online Communities, Carlos shares the six secrets to creating a thriving, engaged, and loyal community in your social product. Whether you’re struggling to build a new community or need advice shaping an existing product, you don’t want to miss this. Save your seat today!

David is a prolific writer who thoughtfully examines the ethical consequences of emerging technology. Recent pieces include Alexa, What’s the Future of Conversational Interface? and Has Human Communication Become Botified? Follow @TechEthicist on Twitter for insights into online safety, digital citizenship, and the future of tech.

About the speakers

David Ryan Polgar

David Ryan Polgar has carved out a unique and pioneering career as a “Tech Ethicist.” With a background as an attorney and college professor, he transitioned in recent years to focus entirely on improving how children, teens, and adults utilize social media & tech. David is a tech writer (Big Think, Quartz, and IBM thinkLeaders), speaker (3-time TEDx, The School of The New York Times), and frequent tech commentator (SiriusXM, AP, Boston Globe,, HuffPost). He has experience working with startups and social media companies (ASKfm), and co-founded the global Digital Citizenship Summit (held at Twitter HQ in 2016). Outside of writing and speaking, David currently serves as Trust & Safety for the teen virtual world Friendbase. He is also a board member for the non-profit #ICANHELP, which is planning the first #Digital4Good event at Twitter HQ on September 18th.

His forward-thinking approach to online safety and digital citizenship has been recognized by various organizations and outlets across the globe and was recently singled out online by the Obama Foundation.

Carlos Figueiredo

Carlos Figueiredo leads Two Hat Security‘s Trust & Safety efforts, collaborating with clients and partners to challenge our views of healthy online communities.

Born and raised in Brazil, Carlos has been living in Canada for almost 11 years where he has worked directly with online safety for the last 9 years, helping large digital communities with their mission to stay healthy and engaged. From being a moderator himself to leading a multi-cultural department that was pivotal to the safety of global communities across different languages and cultures, Carlos has experienced the pains and joys of on-screen interactions.

He’s interested in tackling the biggest challenges of our connected times and thrives on collaborating and creating bridges in the industry.



About Two Hat Security

At Two Hat Security, we empower social and gaming platforms to build healthy, engaged online communities, all while protecting their brand and their users from high-risk content. Want to increase user retention, reduce moderation, and protect your brand?

Get in touch today to see how our chat filter and moderation software Community Sift can help you make online safety a priority in your product.

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How Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Explains the Internet

Online comments.

Anonymous egg accounts.

Political posts.

… feeling nauseous?

Chances are, you shuddered slightly at the words “online comments.”

Presenting Exhibit A, from a Daily Mail article about puppies:

It gets worse. Presenting Exhibit B, from Twitter:


The internet has so much potential. It connects us across borders, cultural divides, and even languages. And oftentimes that potential is fulfilled. Remember the Arab Spring in 2011? It probably wouldn’t have happened without Twitter connecting activists across the Middle East.

Writers, musicians, and artists can share their art with fans across the globe on platforms like Medium and YouTube.

After the terror attacks in Manchester and London in May, many Facebook users used the Safety Check feature to reassure family and friends that they were safe from danger.

Every byte of knowledge that has ever existed is only a few taps away, stored, improbably, inside a device that fits in the palm of a hand. The internet is a powerful tool for making connections, for sharing knowledge, and for conversing with people across the globe.

And yet… virtual conversations are so often reduced to emojis and cat memes. Because who wants to start a real conversation when it’s likely to dissolve into insults and vitriol?

A rich, fulfilling, and enlightened life requires a lot more.

So what’s missing?

Maslow was onto something…

Remember Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? It probably sounds vaguely familiar, but here’s a quick refresher if you’ve forgotten.

A psychology professor at Brandeis University in Massachusetts, Abraham Maslow published his groundbreaking paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in 1943. In this seminal paper, he identifies and describes the five basic levels of human needs. Each need forms a solid base under the next. And each basic need, when achieved, leads to the next, creating a pyramid. Years later he expanded on this hierarchy of human needs in the 1954 book Motivation and Personality.

The hierarchy looks like this:

  • Physiological: The basic physical requirements for human survival, including air, water, and food; then clothing, shelter, and sex.
  • Safety: Once our physical needs are met, we require safety and security. Safety needs include economic security as well as health and well-being.
  • Love/belonging: Human beings require a sense of belonging and acceptance from family and social groups.
  • Esteem: We need to be desired and accepted by others.
  • Self-actualization: The ultimate. When we self-actualize, we become who we truly are.

According to Maslow, our supporting needs must be met before we can become who we truly are — before we reach self-actualization.

So what does it mean to become yourself? When we self-actualize, we’re more than just animals playing dress-up — we are fulfilling the promise of consciousness. We are human.

Sorry, what does this have to do with the internet?

We don’t stop being human when we go online. The internet is just a new kind of community — the logical evolution of the offline communities that we started forming when the first species of modern humans emerged about 200,000 years ago in Eurasia. We’ve had many chances to reassess, reevaluate, and modify our offline community etiquette since then, which means that offline communities have a distinct advantage over the internet.

Merriam-Webster’s various definitions of “community” are telling:

people with common interests living in a particular area;
an interacting population of various kinds of individuals (such as species) in a common location;
a group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society

Community is all about interaction and common interests. We gather together in groups, in public and private spaces, to share our passions and express our feelings. So, of course, we expect to experience that same comfort and kinship in our online communities. After all, we’ve already spent nearly a quarter of a million years cultivating strong, resilient communities — and achieving self-actualization.

But the internet has failed us because people are afraid to do just that. Those of us who aspire to online self-actualization are too often drowned out by trolls. Which leaves us with emojis and cat memes — communication without connection.

So how do we bridge that gap between conversation and real connection? How do we reach the pinnacle of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in the virtual space?

Conversations have needs, too

What if there was a hierarchy of conversation needs using Maslow’s theory as a framework?

On the internet, our basic physical needs are already taken care of so this pyramid starts with safety.

So what do our levels mean?

  • Safety: Offline, we expect to encounter bullies from time to time. And we can’t get upset when someone drops the occasional f-bomb in public. But we do expect to be safe from targeted harassment, from repeated racial, ethnic, or religious slurs, and from threats against our bodies and our lives. We should expect the same when we’re online.
  • Social: Once we are safe from harm, we require places where we feel a sense of belonging and acceptance. Social networks, forums, messaging apps, online games — these are all communities where we gather and share.
  • Esteem: We need to be heard, and we need our voices to be respected.
  • Self-actualization: The ultimate. When we self-actualize online, we blend the power of community with the blessing of esteem, and we achieve something bigger and better. This is where great conversation happens. This is where user-generated content turns into art. This is where real social change happens.

Problem is, online communities are far too often missing that first level. And without safety, we cannot possibly move onto social.

The problem with self-censorship

In the 2016 study Online Harassment, Digital Abuse, and Cyberstalking in America, researchers found that nearly half (47%) of Americans have experienced online harassment. That’s big — but it’s not entirely shocking. We hear plenty of stories about online harassment and abuse in the news.

The real kicker? Over a quarter (27%) of Americans reported that they had self-censored their posts out of fear of harassment.

If we feel so unsafe in our online communities that we stop sharing what matters to us most, we’ve lost the whole point of building communities. We’ve forgotten why they matter.

How did we get here?

There are a few reasons. No one planned the internet; it just happened, site by site and network by network. We didn’t plan for it, so we never created a set of rules.

And the internet is still so young. Think about it: Communities have been around since we started to walk on two feet. The first written language began in Sumeria about 5000 years ago. The printing press was invented 600 years ago. The telegram has been around for 200 years. Even the telephone — one of the greatest modern advances in communication — has a solid 140 years of etiquette development behind it.

The internet as we know it today — with its complex web of disparate communities and user-generated content — is only about 20 years old. And with all due respect to 20-year-olds, it’s still a baby.

We’ve been stumbling around in this virtual space with only a dim light to guide us, which has led to the standardization of some… less-than-desirable behaviors. Kids who grew up playing MOBAS (multi-only battle games) have come to accept that toxicity is a byproduct of online competition. Those of us who use social media expect to encounter previously unimaginably vile hate speech when we scroll through our feed.

And, of course, we all know to avoid the comments section.

Can self-actualization and online communities co-exist?

Yes. Because why not? We built this thing — so we can fix it.

Three things need to happen if we’re going to move from social to esteem to self-actualization.

Industry-wide paradigm shift

The good news? It’s already happening. Every day there’s a new article about the dangers of cyberbullying and online abuse. More and more social products realize that they can’t allow harassment to run free on their platforms. The German parliament recently backed a plan to fine social networks up to €50 million if they don’t remove hate speech within 24 hours.

Even the Obama Foundation has a new initiative centered around digital citizenship.

As our friend David Ryan Polgar, Chief of Trust & Safety at Friendbase says:

“Digital citizenship is the safe, savvy, ethical use of social media and technology.”

Safe, savvy, and ethical: As a society, we can do this. We’ve figured out how to do it in our offline communities, so we can do it in our online communities, too.

A big part of the shift includes a newfound focus on bringing empathy back into online interactions. To quote David again:

“There is a person behind that avatar and we often forget that.”

Thoughtful content moderation

The problem with moderation is that it’s no fun. No one wants to comb through thousands of user reports, review millions of potentially horrifying images, or monitor a mind-numbingly long live-chat stream in real time.

Too much noise + no way to prioritize = unhappy and inefficient moderators.

Thoughtful, intentional moderation is all about focus. It’s about giving community managers and moderators the right techniques to sift through content and ensure that the worst stuff — the targeted bullying, the cries for help, the rape threats — is dealt with first.

Automation is a crucial part of that solution. With artificial intelligence getting more powerful every day, instead of forcing their moderation team to review posts unnecessarily, social products can let computers do the heavy lifting first.

The content moderation strategy will be slightly different for every community. But there are a few best practices that every community can adopt:

  • Know your community resilience. This is a step that too many social products forget to take. Every community has a tolerance level for certain behaviors. Can your community handle the occasional swear word — but not if it’s repeated 10 times? Resilience will tell you where to draw the line.
  • Use reputation to treat users differently. Behavior tends to repeat itself. If you know that a user posts things that break your community guidelines, you can place tighter restrictions on them. Conversely, you can give engaged users the ability to post more freely. But don’t forget that users are human; everyone deserves the opportunity to learn from their mistakes. Which leads us to our next point…
  • Use behavior-changing techniques. Strategies include auto-messaging users before they hit “send” on posts that breach community guidelines, and publicly honoring users for their positive behavior.
  • Let your users choose what they see. The ESRB has the right idea. We all know what “Rated E for Everyone” means — we’ve heard it a million times. So what if we designed systems that allowed users to choose their experience based on a rating? If you have a smart enough system in the background classifying and labeling content, then you can serve users only the content that they’re comfortable seeing.

It all comes back to our hierarchy of conversation needs. If we can provide that first level of safety, we can move beyond emojis and cats — and move onto the next level.

Early digital education

The biggest task ahead of us is also the most important — education. We didn’t have the benefit of 20 years of internet culture, behavior, and standards when we first started to go online. We have those 20 years of mistakes and missteps behind us now.

Which means that we have an opportunity with the next generation of digital citizens to reshape the culture of the internet. In fact, strides are already being made.

Riot Games (the studio that makes the hugely popular MOBA League of Legends) has started an initiative in Australia and New Zealand that’s gaining traction. Spearheaded by Rioter Ivan Davies, the League of Legends High School Clubs teaches students about good sportsmanship through actual gameplay.

It’s a smart move — kids are already engaged when they’re playing a game they love, so it’s a lot easier to slip some education in there. Ivan and his team have even created impressive teaching resources for teachers who lead the clubs.

Google recently launched Be Internet Awesome, a program that teaches young children how to be good digital citizens and explore the internet safely. In the browser game Interland, kids learn how to protect their personal information, be kind to other users, and spot phishing scams and fake sites. And similar to Riot, Google has created curriculum for educators to use in the classroom.

In addition, non-profits like the Cybersmile Foundation, UK Safer Internet Center, and more use social media to reach kids and teens directly.

Things are changing. Our kids will likely grow up to be better digital citizens than we ever were. And it’s unlikely that they will tolerate the bullying, harassment, and abuse that we’ve put up with for the last 20 years.

Along with a paradigm shift, thoughtful moderation, and education, if we want change to happen, we have to celebrate our communities. We have to talk about our wins, our successes… and especially our failures. Let’s not beat ourselves up if we don’t get it right the first time. We’re figuring this out.

We’re self-actualizing.

It’s time for the internet to grow up

Is this the year the internet achieves its full potential? From where most of us in the industry sit, it’s already happening. People are fed up, and they’re ready for a change.

This year, social products have an opportunity to decide what they really want to be. They can be the Wild West, where too many conversations end with a (metaphorical) bullet. Or they can be something better. They can be spaces that nurture humanity — real communities, the kind we’ve been building for the last 200,000 years.

This year, let’s build online communities that honor the potential of the internet.

That meet every level in our hierarchy of needs.

That promote digital citizenship.

That encourage self-actualization.

This year, let’s start the conversation.


At Two Hat Security, we empower social and gaming platforms to build healthy, engaged online communities, all while protecting their brand and their users from high-risk content.

Want to increase user retention, reduce moderation, and protect your brand?

Get in touch today to see how our chat filter and moderation software Community Sift can help you build a community that promotes good digital citizenship — and gives your users a safe space to connect.

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